Nigeria's political and macroeconomic development is examined to provide better understanding of the intricacies of revenue collection and allocation. The author peruses the constitutional responsibilities of various tiers of government to expose its expenditure profile, which reveals lopsided revenue allocation formulae. He proceeds to examine the various ways in which Nigeria may allocate revenue more equitably, which he considers key to the project of attaining stable democracy after decades of military rule.
Methods of mathematical modelling applied in contemporary computational mechanics can be divided into purely numerical and analytical-numerical procedures. Purely analytical solutions loose their popularity because of strong limitations connected with simple regions and mostly linear equations to which they can be applied. Obviously, the fundamental monographs like for example elastic solids, in fluid mechanics or for heat exchange are always popular and often quoted, but rather as sources of comparative benchmarks confirming correctness and accuracy of computer solutions.This volume can be divided into two parts. In the first part a general presentation of the boundary collocation approach and its numerous variants is enclosed. In the second part the method is applied to many different engineering problems, showing its properties, accuracy and convergence. Both evident advantages and also limitations of the approach are clearly presented. The observations are based mainly on investigations by the authors and their co-operators carried out in the last two decades. The monograph includes figures and tables that present results of numerical examples. A considerable number (above 1000) of papers and monographs concerning the discussed approach are quoted. They are listed separately in each chapter, which makes the literature survey easier to use.
Three different lines of approach have contributed to the theory of optimal planning. One approach considers the problem from the view-point of a national government and its adviser, the econometrician planning speciÂ alist. The government can, if this is thought to be desirable, stimulate investment in certain directions and discourage other economic activities. By various fiscal devices, it can influence both the total level and the distribution of investment funds over different sectors of production. Also, in many countries, a public agency plays some kind of coordinatÂ ing role in the formulation of long-term plans for output by the enterÂ prises sector; this may range from administrative direction in so-called centrally planned economies, to persuasion and advice in 'capitalist' economies. Accordingly, the public planner wishes to know what disÂ tribution of the nation's resources would be 'optimal'. This leads to the construction of various models which may be described under the general heading 'input-output type models'. This type of model has been largely developed by practitioners, among whom Sandee [B2] is probably the most outstanding and the earliest. A later, well-developed example of a model based on this approach is, for example, the Czech model by Cerny et al. [Bl]. A second approach considers the problem from the point of view of the private entrepreneur and his adviser, the manager and financial accountant.
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